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HSC Biology

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Module 1 | Maintaining a balance

Focus 3: Plants and animals regulate the concentration of gases, water and waste products of metabolism in cells and in interstitial fluid

Lesson 1 | Role of the kidney

  • Explain why the concentration of water in cells should be maintained within a narrow range for optimal function

  • Explain why the removal of wastes is essential for continued metabolic activity

  • Identify the role of the kidney in the excretory system of fish and mammals

  • Analyse information from secondary sources to compare and explain the differences in urine concentration of terrestrial mammals, marine fish and freshwater fish

Lesson 2 | Kidney dissection

  • Perform a first-hand investigation of the structure of a mammalian kidney by dissection, use of a model or visual resource and identify the regions involved in the excretion of waste products

Lesson 3 | The nephron

  • Explain why the processes of diffusion and osmosis are inadequate in removing dissolved nitrogenous wastes in some organisms

  • Distinguish between active and passive transport and relate these to processes occurring in the mammalian kidney

  • Explain how the process of filtration and reabsorption in the mammalian nephron regulate body fluid composition

  • Use available evidence to explain the relationship between the conservation of water and the production and excretion of concentrated nitrogenous wastes in a range of Australian insects and terrestrial mammals

Lesson 4 | Renal dialysis

  • Gather, process and analyse information from secondary sources to compare the process of renal dialysis with the function of the kidney

Lesson 5 | ADH and aldosterone

  • Outline the role of the hormones aldosterone and ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) in the regulation of water and salt levels in blood

  • Present information to outline the general use of hormone replacement therapy in people who cannot secrete aldosterone

Lesson 6 | Enantiostasis

  • Define enantiostasis as the maintenance of metabolic and physiological functions in response to variations in the environment and discuss its importance to estuarine organisms in maintaining appropriate salt concentrations

  • Process and analyse information from secondary sources and use available evidence to discuss processes used by different plants for salt regulation in saline environments

Lesson 7 | Water conservation in plants

  • Describe adaptations of a range of terrestrial Australian plants that assist in minimising water loss

  • Perform a first-hand investigation to gather information about structures in plants that assist in the conservation of water

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