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Year 12 Physics

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Module 8 | From the universe to the atom

Content 1: Origins of the elements

Lesson 1 | The Big Bang

  • investigate the processes that led to the transformation of radiation into matter that followed the ‘Big Bang’

  • investigate the evidence that led to the discovery of the expansion of the Universe by Hubble

Lesson 2 | Types of spectra

  • account for the production of emission and absorption spectra and compare these with a continuous black body spectrum

Lesson 3 | Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram

  • investigate the key features of stellar spectra and describe how these are used to classify stars

  • investigate the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and how it can be used to determine the following about a star:
    – characteristics and evolutionary stage
    – surface temperature
    – colour
    – luminosity

Lesson 4 | Stars and fusion

  • analyse and apply Einstein’s description of the equivalence of energy and mass and relate this to the nuclear reactions that occur in stars

  • investigate the types of nucleosynthesis reactions involved in Main Sequence and Post-Main Sequence stars, including but not limited to:
    – proton–proton chain
    – CNO (carbon-nitrogen-oxygen) cycle

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