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# Year 12 Physics

## Module 8 | From the universe to the atom

### Content 4: Properties of the nucleus

#### Lesson 1 | Radioactive decay

• analyse the spontaneous decay of unstable nuclei, and the properties of the alpha, beta and gamma radiation emitted (ACSPH028, ACSPH030)

• examine the model of half-life in radioactive decay and make quantitative predictions about the activity or amount of a radioactive sample using the following relationships:
–  N= Noe−λt
– $\lambda = \frac{ln\left ( 2 \right )}{t_{1/2}}$
where Nt = number of particles at time t, N0 = number of particles present at t = 0, λ = decay constant, t1/2 = time for half the radioactive amount to decay

#### Lesson 2 | Ionising radiation

• analyse the spontaneous decay of unstable nuclei, and the properties of the alpha, beta and gamma radiation emitted

#### Lesson 3 | Nuclear fission

• model and explain the process of nuclear fission, including the concepts of controlled and uncontrolled chain reactions, and account for the release of energy in the process (ACSPH033, ACSPH034)

• analyse relationships that represent conservation of mass-energy in spontaneous and artificial nuclear transmutations, including alpha decay, beta decay, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion (ACSPH032)

#### Lesson 4 | Energy in fusion and fission

• account for the release of energy in the process of nuclear fusion

• predict quantitatively the energy released in nuclear decays or transmutations, including nuclear fission and nuclear fusion, by applying: (ACSPH031, ACSPH035, ACSPH036)
– the law of conservation of energy
– mass defect
– binding energy
– Einstein’s mass-energy equivalence relationship E = mc2

• ### 53 Lessons

• ### 74 Practice questions

• ### 53 Hours of video

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